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The Consciousness Theorem ©

“What is consciousness?” is an age old question that the human race has been inquiring for. Its understanding is also required for explanation of fundamental concepts in quantum physics.

Still, there is no precise definition of the subject matter that is universally endorsed by all scientific communities. “Consciousness” (in applied science) is associated with awareness and measured on the scale of responsiveness.

Today, we have a good knowledge of physical phenomenon of electromagnetism, photoelectric effect and nuclear forces besides others. But have we ever speculated of how does an electron measure the frequency of an incident photon during photoelectric phenomenon? Decide if it’s above the threshold frequency of the metal? And then escape the metal surface?

Or for that matter if we discuss upon electromagnetism, how does a proton (or electron) measure the charge quantity of any charged particle placed in its vicinity? And know the nature of that particle, i.e. if it’s negatively or positively charged? By what means or method it measures the distance between itself and that charged particle? And how does it know its own charge amount? Because coulombs law comes to act only after this data assortment.

Maybe we should address these questions to solve the ultimate essential concepts in quantum physics or otherwise.

 

In this paper, I discuss upon potential definitions of consciousness and show that if we, human beings categorize ourselves as conscious, then so are the fundamental particles of atoms that make up the universe.

I employ above mentioned phenomenon (electromagnetism, photoelectric effect and nuclear forces) to justify the theorem. I establish the theorem and discuss its implications.

 

STATING THE THEOREM

TheoremBased on any universally potential definition of consciousness, if we, human beings categorize ourselves as conscious, then so are the fundamental particles of atom that make up the universe.

Definitions Under Consideration

Consciousness is

  • Faculty of perceiving, assimilating and being responsive to ones surrounding environment.
  • Faculty of comprehending surrounding environment and responding appropriately.

 

POINTS OF ARGUMENT AND EXPLANATION

Argument 1

We now consider the following definition of consciousness and build up contention-

  • Consciousness is faculty of perceiving, assimilating and being responsive to ones surrounding environment.

I begin discussing the physical phenomenon of PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT.

While electrons are free to move about within a metal, they cannot readily escape it. When high frequency light as ultraviolet or blue light is radiated, electrons pop out of metal with high energy. With lower frequency yellow light, the energy is less. Red light usually emits no electrons.[1]

The explanation is like this. High frequency light with its high energy photons give electrons enough energy to jump out of metal. As the energy of photons increase, energy of ejected electrons also increases. An increase in the intensity of low-frequency light only increases the number of low-energy photons sent over a given interval of time. This change in intensity will not create any single photon with enough energy to dislodge an electron. Thus, energy of the emitted electrons does not depend on the intensity of the incoming light, but only on the energy (equivalently frequency) of the individual photons. It is an interaction between the incident photon and the outermost electrons.

The lowest frequency of light required to emit electrons from a metal is known as its threshold frequency. For light below this frequency, photons would have insufficient energy to remove an electron from the metal. In case of red light flash, no electrons are ejected.

Electrons absorb energy from photons when irradiated following an “all or nothing” principle. All of the energy from one photon must be absorbed and used to liberate one electron from atomic binding, or else the energy is re-emitted. If the photon energy is absorbed, some of the energy liberates the electron from the atom, and the rest contributes to the electron’s kinetic energy as a free particle. [2][3][4]

Dig. 1 – Photoelectric Effect

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The energy with which the electrons are emitted from a particular metal is measured by the following formula –

                                 Ek = h × (f-f°)              (Photoelectric effect formula)

where  f> f° for photoelectric effect to occur. [5]

 

Analysis:

We need to address following questions, if we intend to understand underlying principles of consciousness and formulate a theory of everything.

How would an electron be able to differentiate between incident photons of varying energy (frequency) and respond accordingly? How does it make out or measure the frequency of an incident photon? Decide if it’s above the threshold frequency of the metal, and then escape the metal surface?

The discussion leads to a conclusion that electrons do comprehend and confirm to the energy photons of different capacity and move out of metal with varying kinetic energy correspondingly. It is able to perceive and assimilate its surrounding environment and respond accordingly.

Thus, if we take into consideration the above-mentioned definition of consciousness, then an electron fulfills the standard norms of the definition.

So, should not an electron be considered conscious?

 

 

Argument 2

Now, we consider next definition –

  • Consciousness is faculty of comprehending surrounding environment and responding appropriately.

This time, argument is fabricated using fundamental laws of ELECTROMAGNETISM.

 

The coulombs law states that the magnitude of the electrostatic force of attraction between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the magnitude of charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The force is along the straight line joining them. If the two charges have the same sign, the electrostatic force between them is repulsive; if they have different signs, the force between them is attractive.

Dig. 2 – Coulombs Law

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(Experiment 1) In an exemplary model, if we place a negatively charged particle of some point charge “q” in vicinity of a proton, then as maintained by electromagnetism, the particle experiences force of attraction towards the proton. We measure the force of attraction by the following formula –

                                       F = k * q * Q/r²          (Coulomb’s inverse square law)

The strength of this force is proportional to the amount of charge of negative particle and inversely proportional to the square of distance between the two particles.

 

Analysis:

Here, we need to bring up certain questions as to how does a proton measure its own charge amount? By what means is it able to do so? Is it self-aware?

By what method it measures the charge quantity of charged particle placed in its vicinity? How does it differentiate between the nature of that particle, whether it is negatively charged or positively charged?

By what means or method it measures the distance between itself and that charged particle? How does it always gauges the distance so precisely?

And after all this data collection by proton, it applies the needful force?

At least, we cannot deny the fact that it is doing so (or it is happening). Because, by denying it, we would probably be denying coulombs law.

Convincingly, we deduce that a proton is able to integrate its surrounding information, as to the nature of any charged particle; its distance from that particle and amount of charge proton carries itself.

So, the next question arises, should a proton be considered conscious?

 

(Experiment 2) In the next example, we place an electron in proximity to a negatively charged particle, which experiences the force of repulsion in direction away from the electron. The force is measured by above mentioned formula-

                                        F = k * q * Q/r²        (Coulomb’s inverse square law)

 

The strength of this force is proportional to the amount of charge of negative particle and inversely proportional to the square of distance between the two particles.

 

Analysis:

We contend with similar questions here also. By what means the electron measures its own charge amount?

How does it measure the charge quantity of the negatively charged particle, in its vicinity? How does it differentiate between the nature of that particle, whether it is negatively charged or positively charged?

By what means or approach it measures the distance between itself and that charged particle,  so precisely?

We analyze that an electron and a proton can assimilate nature, charge quantity and distance of charged particles in its own context and in view of that apply attractive or repulsive force.

 

I stress upon the point that charged particles or entities demonstrate property of particle perception with respect to its own description and distance measurement from that charged particle.

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How are we going to explain and justify their (electrons, protons) undefended and expressive properties should be our immediate concern.

 

(Experiment 3) I continue to build up an argument upon NUCLEAR FORCE.

The force is powerfully attractive between nucleons at distances of about 1 femtometer (fm) between their centers, but rapidly decreases to insignificance at distances beyond about 2.5 fm. At very short distances less than 0.7 fm, it becomes repulsive, and is responsible for the physical size of nuclei, since the nucleons can come no closer than the force allows. At small separations between nucleons (less than ~ 0.7 fm between their centers, depending upon spin alignment) the force becomes repulsive, which keeps the nucleons at a certain average separation, even if they are of different types. At distances larger than 0.7 fm the force becomes attractive between spin-aligned nucleons, becoming maximal at a center–center distance of about 0.9 fm. Beyond this distance the force drops essentially exponentially, until beyond about 2.0 fm separation, the force drops to negligibly small values. At short distances (less than 1.7 fm or so), the nuclear force is stronger than the Coulomb force between protons; it thus overcomes the repulsion of protons inside the nucleus. However, the Coulomb force between protons has a much larger range due to its decay as the inverse square of charge separation, and Coulomb repulsion thus becomes the only significant force between protons when their separation exceeds about 2 to 2.5 fm. [6]

Dig.3 – Nuclear Force

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In relation to the above description, we suppose an experimental set-up where two protons are placed in relation to each other. Measured distances are of some femtometer scale range. We assess effect of varying distances between two protons. One of them is set up in constant fixed position. Other proton is placed at varying distances in relation to the first.

On contemplation, we recognize, as distance between the two protons varies, the nature of force between the two protons also transforms. The force is repulsive at less than 0.7 fm distance and attractive between the 0.7 fm to ~2.0 fm. It then becomes repulsive again on more than ~2.0 fm distances. At this stage, it is the coulombs law that comes to participate.

Thus, it is upon determination of this distance; the nature of force is decided (attractive or repulsive). If the distance is between 0.7 fm to 1.7 fm, then strong nuclear force draws the protons together. If the distance is more than ~2.0 fm, electromagnetic force dominates and repulsion forces the protons apart.

 

Analysis:

It is now to emphasize how the two elementary particles comprehend position in space in relation to each other and calculate the distance.

We need to address the method that allows the protons to recognize each other, measure the distance between them and then decide upon the resulting force.

Distance perception (measurement) in space is a striking property of any elementary particle. Even human beings, the most sentient beings on planet cannot perceive or measure distance in space accurately. (E.g., I cannot determine the exact distance between my eyes and my laptop screen without a ruler or scale.)

The discussion leads us to an open question, should the fundamental particles be justified as conscious?

 

 CONCLUSION

The above arguments construe that fundamental particles fulfill criteria of “consciousness” definitions taken into consideration. They are able to perceive and comprehend their surrounding environment, assimilate it and respond accordingly.

Conclusively, based on standard norms of awareness and responsiveness on which we categorize ourselves as conscious, so are the fundamental particles of an atom (such as a proton and electron) that make up the universe.

Doubtlessly, properties as distance measurement in space and measurement of frequency of an incident photon (by outermost electrons of metal) require intense pondering.

 

PHILOSOPHICAL IMPLICATIONS

The results will help us relate between basic principles of physical world as matter and consciousness.

Our current understanding of matter (in any existential form) seems limited because we have a limited belief system. If we deeply examine phenomenon of photoelectric effect, electromagnetism, coulombs law or nuclear forces and ask the right questions, we may need to develop upon our convictions and ideologies.

This new understanding will help us relate between concepts of materialism and idealism.

 

END NOTES

The conclusion leaves us with another question, “Is consciousness an intrinsic property of matter?”

The conclusions of the theorem imply that if the fundamental particles of an atom are conscious, then so is matter that comprises of the same fundamental particles. We understand that all matter is the basis of physical existence. Therefore, it is an issue of serious rumination (on philosophical and scientific grounds) that matter and consciousness are entwined to each other.

I would like to quote Max Plank, Physics Nobel Laureate, “I regard consciousness as fundamental. I regard matter as derivative from consciousness. We cannot get behind consciousness. Everything that we talk about, everything that we regard as existing, postulates consciousness.” [7]

 

Sources:
[1] Bruce Rosenblum, ‎Fred Kuttner (2011). Quantum Enigma: Physics Encounters Consciousness, Oxford University Press.
[2] Lenard, P. (1902). "Ueber die lichtelektrische Wirkung". Annalen der Physik313 (5): 149–198. doi:10.1002/andp.19023130510.
[3] Millikan, R. (1914). "A Direct Determination of "h."". Physical Review4 (1): 73–    75. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.4.73.2.
[4] Millikan, R. (1916)"A Direct Photoelectric Determination of Planck's "h""(PDF). Physical Review7 (3): 355-388. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.7.355
[5] Fromhold, A. T. (1991). Quantum Mechanics for Applied Physics and EngineeringCourier Dover Publications. pp. 5–6.
[6] http://research.omicsgroup.org/index.php/Nuclear_force
[7] Max Plank, Physics Nobel Laureate. [Source: The Observer, January 1931]

 

 

 

 

 


 

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Gravity As “Conscious Force” To Resolve Quantum Gravity

1.1     INTRODUCTION

 According to current science, there is a missing connection between general relativity and quantum mechanics concepts of physics, which is needed to unify them into one, to conceptualize a unified field theory.

The fundamental elements of Quantum mechanics are as follows –

  • Theory asserts that everything in the universe exist in wave-particle duality state.
  • The basis of quantum mechanics is probability. We can only predict the probability of possible outcomes of any quantum experiment or set-up.
  • It is only when the quantum particle is measured, its exact state can be determined.
  • Quantum correlations are non-local type. Thus, any two quantum particles can be “entangled” such that their states will depend on one another irrespective of the distance between particles. The simultaneous measurement of particles determines status of each particle in respect to other. Albert Einstein famously quoted this phenomenon as “spooky action at a distance.
  • Information is the currency of reality. That is the basic currency of quantum theory[1]

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe the force of gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics. A quantum theory of gravity is needed in order to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum physics.

However, we definitely have no idea, starting from which scale of measurement, quantum mechanics and general relativity are separated into two realms.

 

 

1.2     UNIFICATION OF FUNDAMENTAL FORCES

 Definition of force – A “force” is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. In other words, a force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate. [2]

The pursuit for the unification of the fundamental forces of nature has been a concern for the scientific community for some decades, as of now. In unified field theory, we attempt to describe all fundamental forces and the relationships between elementary particles in terms of a single theoretical framework.[3]

The fundamental forces are as follows:

 

  • Gravitational forceis the weakest of the fundamental interactions. It is the only interaction that acts on all particles having mass.

  Gravitational Force(GF)  =  [ G x M1 x M2÷   R2

Where G = universal gravitational constant.
M1 = mass of the observing physical system (the observer).
M2 = mass of the observed physical system (the observed).
R = separation between the observer and the observed.

 

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 Gravitational force (image source)

 

 

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The common aspect of the above mentioned forces is that all the forces act between two matter entities.

 

1.3 FIFTH FORCE

Fifth force is an additional force, hypothesized to explain various anomalous observations that do not fit existing theories of physics.

It is a postulated force of roughly the strength of gravity (i.e. it is much weaker than electromagnetism or the nuclear forces) and to have a range of anywhere from less than a millimeter to cosmological scales.

 

 

 2.1 NATURE’S RULE AND NATURE RULES
(CONCEPT OF CONSCIOUS QUANTUM PARTICLE)

 In order to understand quantum gravity and the hypothesis of unidentified fifth force, we have to understand the operational universe from a deeper perspective, or to say from nature’s perspective.

We must begin from the following question – How does “not-conscious” planet body earth apply force  (gravitational) on “conscious” human beings?

When we observe the universal law of gravitation, we see that planet body earth does not differentiate between a “conscious and not-conscious” body before applying the gravitational force. I will explain this using the following model.

Let us take an example of a man falling from a branch of tree and a fruit falling from the same branch (i.e. same center of gravity). We see that the gravitational force, applied by planet body earth on both matter bodies (i.e. man and fruit), only depends on their individual masses. The only other factor that affects the gravitational force is the distance of the matter body from the center of earth (which is same in the above mentioned case). Planet body earth does not differentiate between a falling man or woman, a fruit or a duckling, a child or his ball.

 

 

gravity2

 

 

We should as well follow nature, to develop a forward outlook.

We should actually dissolve the line of differentiation between “conscious and not-conscious”, because there is no such line for gravitational force to pertain (by nature).

All matter be considered conscious whether it belongs to macro-world or micro-world, because there is no such distinction by nature upon matter.

Thus, we can use the term “conscious force” for gravitational force without any hassle. Conscious force is gravitational force which is the unidentified fifth force. This force is a synonym for gravitational force, works just like it on all matter entities, irrespective of their nature or position in space, both in macro or micro worlds.

The same force applies on quantum scale because actually there is no divisive line drawn by nature upon matter depending upon any measurement scale.

Simply the distance between the matter entities and their mass, cause the force, named gravitational force. I would prefer and propose to call it “conscious force.”

Thus, I would like to conclude, “conscious matter” applies “conscious force”- the unidentified fifth force to resolve quantum gravity.

 

 

 CONSCIOUSNESS THEOREM TEXT LINK

 

SOURCES
[1] Henry P. Stapp (1999). arXiv:quant-ph/9905054v1 17 May 1999.
[2] Nave, C. R. (2014). Hyperphysics. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University. Retrieved 15 August 2014.

 

 

 


 

Weighing Of Mass And Distance Measurement By Objects In Phenomenon Of Gravitation

Gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all objects with mass are brought towards one another, including planets, stars and galaxies. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy, including light, also cause gravitation and are under the influence of it.

Gravitational force is the weakest of the fundamental interactions. It is approximately 1038 times weaker than the strong force, 1036 times weaker than the electromagnetic force and 1029 times weaker than the weak force. It is the only interaction that acts on all particles having mass. Gravity has an infinite range, although its effects become increasingly weaker on farther objects.

 

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Universal Law Of Gravitation

According to universal law of gravitation, every object in the universe attracts every other object with a force directed along the line of centers of the two objects that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the separation between the two objects.

 

The famous equation given by Sir Isaac Newton is as follows –

 

F =(G *M *m)/ r^2

Where     F = Gravitational force.
          G = universal gravitational constant.
          M = mass of one object.
          m = mass of other object.
          r = separation between the two objects.

 

 

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The theory of gravitation has a long recorded history of discoveries and developments. However, till date, some aspects of it remain unclear and elusive. A quantum theory of gravity is needed in order to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum physics.

 

Analysis:

We now scrutinize the phenomenon from a rational perspective.

We should try and analyse by what means or method any matter entity weighs the mass of every other matter entity in its vicinity?

By what method it measures the distance between itself and any other material object? Distance measurement on each instance with so much precision is another matter of detailing.

Furthermore, we should also try to understand by what approach any matter entity weighs its own mass? Is it self-aware?

All these quantitative measures are to be taken into consideration for the execution of the universal law of gravitation.

We need to address these questions, if we wish to comprehend the phenomenon of gravity in totality. And solve the remaining aspects of the phenomenon, including quantum gravity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deduction:

Convincingly, we deduce that matter objects are able to gauge their own mass. They also integrate their surrounding environ, as to the mass of other matter entities in vicinity and their own distance from those objects.

It is only then, the phenomenon of gravity assumes.

We, as human beings, the most sentient beings on earth cannot gauge our own mass or measure vicinity distances precisely. Forget about gauging (or even wild guessing?) anyone else’s body mass accurately. For that, we need a weighing machine to gauge mass.

 

 

 

And a measuring tape to measure distances in space.

 

 

 

 

So, should all kind of matter be considered comparable?

Should the line of differentiating matter on basis of living and non-living be dissolved? Is consciousness an intrinsic property of matter?

Should all matter, animate or inanimate, be considered conscious? Or the inanimate matter be considered super-conscious, as it displays properties beyond the grasp of conscious sentient human beings?

We need to advance our viewpoint and develop our perspectives on this subject.

 

 


 

 

 

 

Distance Measurement By Electrons And Protons In The Phenomenon Of Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually exhibits electromagnetic fields such as electric fields, magnetic fields, and light and is one of the four fundamental forces in nature. The other three fundamental inter actions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction and gravitation. [1]

 

On Coulomb’s Law

Coulomb’s law states that the magnitude of the electrostatic force of attraction between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The force is along the straight line joining them.

If the two charges have the same sign, the electrostatic force between them is repulsive; if they have different signs, the force between them is attractive.

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The force is measured by following formula-

                   F = k * Q1 * Q2 / r²                 (Coulomb’s inverse square law)

Where k – Constant of proportionality.
      F – Force (attractive/repulsive) on each charged particle.
     Q1 – Point charge 1.
     Q2 – Point charge 2.
      r – Distance between the two particles.

 

There are three conditions to be fulfilled for the validity of Coulomb’s law:

  1. The charges must have a spherically symmetric distribution (e.g. point charges, or a charged metal sphere).
  2. The charges must not overlap (e.g. be distinct point charges).
  3. The charges must be stationary with respect to each other.

 

Analysis:

We should try and analyse, by what means or method does any charged particle, (e.g. proton or electron) measure the distance between itself and any other charged particle? How does it always gauges the distance so precisely?

Distance perception (measurement) in space is a striking property of any elementary particle or point charge. Even human beings, the most sentient beings on planet, cannot perceive or measure distance in space accurately. (E.g., I cannot determine the exact distance between my eyes and my laptop screen without a ruler or scale.)

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Furthermore, how does an electron or proton measure its own charge amount? By what means they are able to do so? Are they self-aware?

By what method it measures the charge quantity of any charged particle placed in its vicinity? How does it differentiate between the nature of that particle, whether it is negatively charged or positively charged?

And after all this data collection by any fundamental particle, it applies the needful force?

 

Perhaps, these are the ultimate fundamental questions to be scrutinized.

At least, we cannot deny the fact that it is doing so (or it is happening). Because, by denying it, we would probably be denying coulombs law.

Convincingly, we deduce that a proton, electron or any other point charge is able to integrate its surrounding information, as to the nature of any charged particle; its distance from that particle and amount of charge it itself carries.

 

We analyze that an electron and a proton can assimilate nature, charge quantity and distance of charged particles in its own context and in view of that apply attractive or repulsive force.

I stress upon the point that charged particles or entities demonstrate property of particle perception with respect to its own description and distance measurement.

So, should the point charge particles (electrons, protons) be considered conscious?

 

couloms law

 

free-rad

 

 

Deduction:

We need to develop an altered viewpoint and deeper sense of understanding to answer the above mentioned questions.

Plethora of philosophical issues will be raised and we may need to alter our foundation belief systems.

Our concern, however, should be how we are going to explain and justify the particles’ undefended and expressive properties.

 

Sources:

[1] Ravaioli, Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, Umberto (2010). Fundamentals of applied electromagnetics (6th ed.). Boston: Prentice Hall. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-13213931-1.

 

 


 

Measurement Of Frequency Of Incident Photon By Electrons In Photoelectric Effect

The discovery of the photoelectric phenomenon dates backs to late eighteenth century AD. The findings related to it have rich historical background with steady progression of understanding of phenomenon. It was in 1905, when Albert Einstein described light as composed of discrete quanta, now called photons. Based upon Max Planck’s theory of black-body radiation, Einstein theorized that the energy in each quantum of light was equal to the frequency multiplied by a constant, later called Planck’s constant. A photon above a threshold frequency has the required energy to eject a single electron, creating the observed effect.

 

On Photoelectric Effect

The photoelectric effect is the phenomenon that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them. Electrons emitted in this manner are called photo-electrons. The phenomenon is commonly studied in electronic physics, as well as in field of chemistry, such as quantum chemistry or electro-chemistry.

The detailed explanation is as follows. While electrons are free to move about within a metal, they cannot readily escape it. When high frequency light as ultraviolet or blue light is radiated, electrons pop out of metal with high energy. With lower frequency yellow light, the energy is less. Red light usually emits no electrons. [1]

High frequency light with its high energy photons give electrons enough energy to jump out of metal. As the energy of photons increase, energy of ejected electrons also increases. An increase in the intensity of low-frequency light only increases the number of low-energy photons sent over a given interval of time. This change in intensity will not create any single photon with enough energy to dislodge an electron. Thus, energy of the emitted electrons does not depend on the intensity of the incoming light, but only on the energy (equivalently frequency) of the individual photons. It is an interaction between the incident photon and the outermost electrons.

The lowest frequency of light required to emit electrons from a metal is known as its threshold frequency. For light below this frequency, photons would have insufficient energy to remove an electron from the metal. In case of red light flash, no electrons are ejected.

Electrons absorb energy from photons when irradiated following an “all or nothing” principle. All of the energy from one photon must be absorbed and used to liberate one electron from atomic binding, or else the energy is re-emitted. If the photon energy is absorbed, part of energy liberates the electron from the atom, and the rest contributes to the electron’s kinetic energy as a free particle. [2] [3] [4] 

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The energy with which the electrons are emitted from a particular metal is measured by the following formula-

                                 Ek = h × (f-f°)              (Photoelectric effect formula)

Where Ek = the maximum kinetic energy of the ejected electrons in joules (J).

      h = the Plank constant 6.63 x 10-34 J s.
      f = frequency of incident photon.
      f° = threshold frequency for metal.
  And f> f° for photoelectric effect to occur. [5]

 

 Analysis: 

We now try and scrutinize the phenomenon from a rational perspective.

Our current scientific understanding of the phenomenon tells us what the occurrence of the phenomenon is and what all is happening.

But we may have never brought upon the following viewpoint as to how would an electron be able to differentiate between incident  photons  of varying energy (frequency) and respond accordingly? By what method or means it measures the frequency of an incident photon? Decide if it’s above the threshold frequency of the metal, and then escape the metal surface with calculative amount of kinetic energy?

These questions may never have been raised before. But need to be addressed, if we intend to understand the ultimate essential concepts in quantum physics or otherwise.

The discussion leads to an understanding that electrons do comprehend and confirm to the energy photons of different capacity and move out of metal with varying energy correspondingly. It is able to perceive and assimilate its surrounding environment and respond to it accordingly.

 So, should it be considered conscious?

 

PE EFFECT

 

 

Deduction:

The new aspect will help us unveil the disposition of an electron.

The answer to the following question, how does an electron measure the frequency of photon, will help us understand how does it comprehend and confirm to the energy photons of different capacity and move out of metal. And should this “awareness and responsiveness” by electron be compared to what we understand as consciousness?

We will need to defend and justify our reasoning if we stand for or against the argument.

 

Sources :

[1] Bruce Rosenblum, ‎Fred Kuttner (2011).Quantum Enigma: Physics Encounters Consciousness, Oxford University Press.
[2] Lenard, P. (1902). "Ueber die lichtelektrische Wirkung". Annalen der Physik. 313 (5): 149–198. doi:1002/andp.19023130510.
[3] Millikan, R. (1914). "A Direct Determination of "h."". Physical Review. 4 (1): 73–     doi:10.1103/PhysRev.4.73.2.
[4] Millikan, R. (1916). "A Direct Photoelectric Determination of Planck's "h""(PDF). Physical Review. 7(3): 355-388. doi:1103/PhysRev.7.355
[5] Fromhold, A. T. (1991). Quantum Mechanics for Applied Physics and Engineering. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 5–6.